Inner Armour Pre-Workout Stack

PHOSPHO-PEAK™ & GLYCO-PEAK™


A Scientific Approach To Mastering Muscle Power Output

 Increase Total Lifting Weight 28.2%, Total Reps 18.5%,

VO2 MAX 43% and Decrease Acid Levels 275%.

 

Brief Overview

Improving skeletal muscle power output is the holy-grail for sports supplements. Muscles achieve peak power output by greatly depending on ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), PhosphoCreatine (PCr), Glycogenic substrates, Muscle pH (acid level of muscle) and the removal of debilitating byproducts of working muscles called hydrogen ions (H+) during your workout.

High-intensity exercise results in diminished stores of these key nutrients and the accumulation of hydrogen ions (H+) in working muscle, each of which has been implicated as a cause of muscle fatigue and the ultimate loss of muscle power output during your workout. Enhancing an individual’s ability to replenish and maximize this process has been shown to dramatically increase muscle contractile strength, speed and power output while delaying fatigue by improving the use of power substrates and maintaining muscular contraction.

Muscle Power and the Phosphagen System (Short Term Power)

A muscle cell has a small amount of ATP floating around that it can use immediately, but only enough to last for about three seconds. To replenish the ATP levels quickly, muscle cells contain a high-power compound called creatine phosphate which regenerates more ATP. Together, the ATP levels and creatine phosphate levels are called the phosphagen system. The phosphagen system can supply the power needs of working muscle at a high rate, but only for 8 to 10 seconds.

Muscle Power and the Glycogen-Lactic System (Medium Term Power)

Muscles have reserves of a complex carbohydrate called glycogen and they use this to make more ATP. Unfortunately, this process also produces muscle debilitating byproducts such as hydrogen ions (H+) and raise muscle acidity. This process supplies ATP at a slower rate than the phosphagen system but can still act rapidly and produce enough ATP to last about 90 seconds. This system does not need oxygen, which is critical because rapidly contracting muscle squeezes off its own blood vessels, depriving itself of oxygenrich blood. There is a definite limit to this process because the hydrogen ions (H+) that are produced build up in the muscle tissue and causes fatigue and a massive loss of power output.

Muscle Power and Aerobic Respiration (Long Term Power)

By two minutes of exercise, the body responds to supply working muscles with oxygen. When oxygen is present, glucose can be completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water in a process called aerobic respiration. The glucose can come from three different places: remaining glycogen supplies in the muscles, the break-down of the liver's glycogen or the absorption of glucose from food in the body.

Aerobic respiration can also use fat reserves or protein (catabolic muscle wasting) to produce ATP. Aerobic respiration produces ATP at the slowest rate of the three systems, but it can continue to supply ATP for several hours or longer, so long as the fuel supply lasts.

PHOSPHO-PEAK™ and GLYCO-PEAK™ have been carefully formulated with the world’s most powerful known ingredients to master these critical power output systems in your body. The production and management of sustainable biological power resources is of vital concern for every athlete, bodybuilder, power lifter etc while disruptions in the normal production of mitochondrial power can contribute to a wide range of metabolic disturbances and symptoms, including fatigue and a massive loss of muscle power output.

Inner Armour Phospho-Peak

PHOSPHO-PEAK™ - # 1 Rated Creatine/NO/ATP Optimizer

THE PHOSPHO-PEAK ADAVNTAGE: To be a great athlete you need to be able to sustain high forces (strength) at high speeds. The combination (speed X strength) equals power. Muscles need energy to generate force. They get it by breaking down the food you eat and capturing the energy carried in its chemical structure in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). As ATP is produced, something called H+ is produced alongside. H+ makes muscles weaker and slower.

The harder your muscles work, the faster they generate H+. This results in serious “power leaks.” PHOSPHO-PEAK helps your muscles seal power leaks at multiple levels. With patented and clinically-tested ingredients like Peak-ATP®, beta-alanine, creatine, electrolyte bound citrates and Krebs cycle intermediates, PHOSPHO-PEAK rapidly clears away H+ and other fatiguing-producing compounds the moment they form so that you can keep generating force without losing steam. Ingredients in PHOSPHO-PEAK can allow you to lift nearly 30% more weight and crank out nearly 20% more reps. That means you’re generating higher forces at higher speeds; in other words, greater power. And when it comes to performance, power is what defines a great athlete.

Ingredient Blend # 1 - MAX ATP-NO™

Dual Fast Twitch/Slow Twitch Intramuscular ATP and Carnosine Precursor Buffering Complex [containing Beta Alanine, CreaPure™ Creatine Monohydrate, Peak ATP™ (Patented Adenosine Tri-Phosphate)].

PEAK-ATP™ (Clinical Dose 250mg):

PEAK ATP is an ingredient, which provides the same molecule the human body uses to create muscle power for athletic performance. Clinical research shows that PEAK ATP increases blood levels of ATP resulting in massive muscular strength, speed, endurance and power improvements.

ATP becomes depleted rapidly in exercising muscle and it is the most critical nutrient for all athletes. It is the body’s major source of “explosive” chemical power within cells. Every muscle cell of the body has millions of chemical reactions that occur every second and most of them cannot occur without the power from ATP.

ATP is essential to the heart and its blood vessels and is the universal power source that controls all chemical reactions of the heart muscle tissue. The available amount of ATP influences the function of the endothelial tissue (inner walls of the arteries), blood flow, the delivery of glucose, nutrients and oxygen to working muscles and helps provide an efficient mechanism for removal of catabolic waste products such as hydrogen ions (H+).

Its immediate availability and re-synthesis is critical for maintaining and restoring muscle power during exercise. An increased amount in muscle makes it possible for more intensive training sets, which is a major advantage for explosive movements in particular.

BETA ALANINE (Carnosyn™) (Clinical Dose 3200mg):

Carnosyn® is the only licensed beta-alanine product which was used in much of the original research on the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle and exercise. It is the only time released form developed allowing you to consume more beta-alanine without causing parestheasia (numbness and tingling) that a typical equivalent amount of beta-alanine would.

During exercise, muscles produce Hydrogen Ions (H+) which causes the pH of the blood to drop and become more acidic. This increase in muscle acidity greatly interferes with working muscle which in turn leads to massive decreases in power output and fatigue. By supplying 3.2g per day of this natural beta amino acid, it has been shown to increase muscle levels of carnosine, the body’s most important hydrogen ion (H+) buffer.

Increased carnosine means increased hydrogen ion (H+) buffering capacity allowing muscles to work longer and harder. It has been shown that beta-alanine supplementation can significantly increase muscle carnosine levels which has been shown to be directly related to an improvement in exercise performance. Beta-Alanine demonstrated a 16.2% improvement in total work done (TWD), significant increases in ventilatory threshold (VT), time to exhaustion (TTE) and a significant delay in neuromuscular fatigue, measured by physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT).

CREAPURE® (Clinical Dose 2500mg):

CreaPure®, the safest, purest (99.99%) and most effective Phosphocreatine in the world provides muscles with phosphocreatine (PCr), shown to improve strength, speed, power and overall athletic performance. When it comes to quality and purity, there’s a broad range of differences between creatines from different manufacturers. The manufacturing conditions and handling of raw materials are both crucial factors for determining the quality of creatine. Inferior raw materials or poor manufacturing procedures result in higher amounts of creatinine, dicyandiamide and dihydrotriazine, which are toxicologically harmful impurities. Besides a few manufacturers in China, AlzChem, the German company that’s behind CreaPure® is the only other producer of creatine monohydrate and uses the highest quality and safety standards in the world.

Many top scientific experts in the sports nutrition industry agree that CreaPure® is without a doubt the highest quality and most effective creatine. It is produced under strict GMP conditions in a by using a patented production process that ensures superior quality and purity. On top of that, the raw materials used to produce CreaPure® are of the highest quality, and most importantly proven to be safe. CreaPure® has such an impressive quality and purity profile that it’s been reviewed and recognized as safe by the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA). No other creatine product in the world has earned this type of recognition.

Why you need PhosphoCreatine:

Approximately 60-70% of the total creatine in muscle is stored in the form of the high power molecule phosphocreatine. The remaining 30-40% is present in the form of free creatine. Besides ATP, phosphocreatine is the most important source for power in the body. Since the ATP reserves in the body are limited, ATP has to be continuously resynthesized. If muscle cells need power, ATP is used up. Creatine (phosphocreatine) then replenishes your body’s ATP stores.

Muscles contain 3-4 times more phosphocreatine than ATP, and the phosphocreatine serves as a short-term power reserve for the times when the need for ATP is greater than the synthesis of ATP. Phosphocreatine levels and the regeneration of ATP play key roles when the body is involved in intense, repetitive forms of exertion. Increasing the amount of creatine and phosphocreatine speeds up the regeneration of ATP which directly leads to the release and availability of greater power output.

For sports that require fast twitch strength, speed and power such as intense weight training, sprinting, jumping etc., short-term creatine supplementation can greatly improve performance in the areas of maximum strength and endurance (5-15%), with interval training in the maximum range (5-20%), with power production in short sprints (approx. 30%,) and in training with repetitive sprints (5-15%). More than 20 clinical trials have shown that creatine supplementation significantly improves muscle strength and/or performance during short bouts of high-intensity exercise. The greatest improvements in

performance can be found during series of repetitive high-intensity types of exertion that are interrupted by a fairly brief period of rest.

Still the Most Research Proven

Over the past few years many different types of creatine have flooded the market, including creatine ethyl ester (CEE), creatine alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), alkalized creatine and tri-creatine malate, to name a few. Although many of the ads you read magazines claim that these newer types of creatine are more effective than creatine monohydrate; there is absolutely no scientific evidence to back up such claims. Not one single scientific study has ever shown any of these newer forms of creatine to be more effective than creatine monohydrate. Creatine monohydrate is the only form of creatine that has been rigorously proven to be most effective at delivering powerful ergogenic and health-promoting benefits.

Ingredient Blend # 2 - KREB ENERGY™

Krebs Cycle Intermediate Mitochondrial Power Complex (containing Alpha-ketoglutaric Acid, Malic Acid, Fumaric Acid, Succinic Acid, Citric Acid, Pyruvic Acid and Pantothenic Acid)

Krebs Cycle Intermediates

In simple terms, the Krebs’ cycle is a system in your body that runs through a complex series of biological steps to generate molecules of ATP for muscle power output. When the Krebs cycle is inhibited, suboptimal aerobic ATP production occurs and can lead to debilitating fatigue and extreme loss of muscle power.

Supplementing these essential Krebs’ cycle acids can help prevent and remove the harmful byproducts that are generated from exercise and can stimulate a high yield of ATP from the mitochondria for muscle power output. They can provide an ergogenic edge in athletic performance by generating muscle power, increasing aerobic capacity and preventing fatigue.

Alpha-ketoglutaric Acid (AKG)

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid plays a vital role in the Krebs’ cycle production of power. As a precursor of the amino acid, glutamic acid, AKG stabilizes blood glucose levels during exercise. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid benefits the athlete by supporting protein synthesis, allowing for longer, more intense workouts, and by promoting healthy nitrogen balance.

Studies of patients given supplemental alpha-keto-glutarate following surgery found a nitrogen-sparing effect and a reduction in loss of lean body mass. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid helps reduce ammonium levels that may interfere with exercise performance. Studies have demonstrated that ammonia formed in the muscle, kidney and brain combines with alpha-keto-glutarate and L-glutamate to reduce ammonia toxicity.

Malic Acid

Malic acid acts as a catalyst in the Krebs’ cycle to increase power production. Malic acid also aids in exercise recovery by counteracting the buildup of hydrogen ions (H+). Supplementation of malic acid has been reported to be beneficial by reducing symptoms of persistent fatigue and muscular myalgia.

Fumaric Acid

Fumaric acid is the trans-isomer of malic acid that enters the cycle. It’s a byproduct at certain stages in the arginine-urea cycle and purine biosynthesis.

Succinic Acid

Succinic acid combines with protein to rebuild muscle fiber and nerve endings. Several amino acids are metabolized into succinic acid, providing a source of anaerobic and aerobic power. Amino acids that are metabolized into succinic acid have been shown to be important in supplying the heart with fuel for myocardium contractions under low oxygen conditions.

Citric Acid

Citric acid occupies a pivotal location in the Krebs’ cycle. After proteins, fats, carbohydrates and amino acids have been oxidized into acetyl coenzyme A, the acetic acid subunit of acetyl CoA is combined with oxaloacetate to form a molecule of citrate. The acetyl coenzyme A acts as a transporter of acetic acid from one enzyme to another.

Pyruvic Acid

Research has shown that taking pyruvate can increase muscle endurance and promote fat loss. Pyruvic acid also appears to increase the amount of glucose that enters muscle cells from the circulating blood. This ability of pyruvic acid leads to increases in immediate available power, as well as increasing stored muscle glycogen levels for future power. Research has shown that pyruvic acid increases muscle endurance and improves cardiac efficiency. In one study pyruvic acid was found to increase glucose extraction by almost 300% and muscle glycogen by 50% after one hour of exercise. The researchers found that arm endurance increased by 150% and leg endurance by 60%.

Pantothenic Acid

Supplementation of panthenine has been shown to produce an anti-arrhythmic effect in animal hearts by increasing ATP synthesis. A study of elite distance runners who were given pantothenic acid daily for two weeks found a 17% reduction in hydrogen ions (H+) buildup and a seven percent reduction in oxygen consumption during prolonged, strenuous exercise.

Ingredient Blend # 3 - Electrolyte VO2-pH™:

Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid Balance and Acid Buffering Complex [containing Potassium (as Chloride, Citrate and Phosphate), Magnesium (as Oxide, Citrate and Phosphate), Sodium (as Chloride, Phosphate and Citrate)]

Electrolyte bound citrates and phosphates have been shown to improve athletic endurance and power in several ways. They are known to act as a buffer during exercise by reducing hydrogen ion (H+) buildup and intracellular acidosis to delay muscle fatigue. They have also been shown to speed the release of oxygen from hemoglobin to muscles and help to reform ATP and increase power. They have been shown to increase cardiac muscle contractility-response to exercise and stimulates glycolysis and power metabolism.

They are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body and critical for athletes as they are involved in muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, antioxidant activity, acid base balance of the blood etc. Because many of these processes are accelerated during exercise, an adequate amount of minerals are necessary for optimal functioning. Athletes should obtain an adequate amount of all minerals, for deficiency may adversely affect performance.

Numerous studies spanning decades have demonstrated the benefits of these blood buffer supplements on improving athletic performance. Recent researcher at the University of Memphis found that phosphates lead to a 10% increase in VO2max, a 10% increase in maximal oxygen uptake and a 9% increase in power output at anaerobic threshold.

Ingredient Blend # 4 - ARMOURCOAT™:

pH Controlled Enteric Coated Delivery System The key to absorbing sensitive nutritional supplements is highly dependent on them surviving the highly acidic environment of the stomach. Sensitive compounds such as those found in PHOSPHO-PEAK (Creatine and PEAK ATP) are not completely chemically stable in this acidic environment. Therefore, enteric coating is an ideal way to maintain the stability of these nutrients in the form of tablets.

Enteric coating is a manufacturing process that surrounds the tablet with materials that dissolve at a predetermined pH higher than that of the stomach. An enteric coated supplement would therefore pass through the stomach intact, dissolve and releasing the contents allowing rapid absorption through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream.

The advantages of PHOSPHO-PEAK’s enteric coated tablets cannot be overstated as many products that you consume (in pill, powder or liquid form) will be harshly destroyed by the stomach acid and never reach muscle tissue.

Inner Armour Glyco-PeakGLYCO-PEAK™ - # 1 Rated Glutamine/BCAA Sports Drink

THE GLYCO-PEAK ADVANTAGE: The higher your training (exercise) intensity, the faster you deplete your body of carbohydrate (glucose and glycogen), amino acids (e.g. glutamine, BCAAs), water and electrolytes (e.g. sodium, potassium). The result is that your muscles ability to generate force (strength) at high speeds (power) deteriorates, particularly in fast-twitch muscle fibers.

Propelled by absorption enhancing enzymes and insulin sensitizers, GLYCO-PEAK’s exclusive 5-phase carbohydrate blend refills whole-body glucose and glycogen levels as fast as you can mix it up and drink it before, during and after training. GLYCO-PEAK is further reinforced with Krebs cycle intermediates, electrolyte-bound phosphates and citrates, and glutamine and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that optimize muscle contractile strength, speed and power by maximizing ATP production, removing fatigue-causing acid and preventing catabolism of muscle protein.

Ingredients in GLYCO-PEAK have been found to increase maximal aerobic power (VO2max) by 43% and reduce lactic acid by an incredible 275%. This protects and enhances your ability to sustain higher muscular forces at higher speeds, also known as speed X strength, or power. And when it comes to performance, power is what defines a great athlete.

Ingredient Blend # 1: - GLUCO 5X™:

Multi Carbohydrate Transport Activating Complex (containing Long-chain High-GI Maltodextrin and Low, Medium and High GI Glucose, Dextrose, Sucrose and Fructose), Glucose Transport and Lean Tissue Support Complex [containing Cinnulin-PF® (Aqueous Cinnamon Extract) (Bark) and Chromium Picolinate], Carbogen® (Patented Carbohydrate Maximizing Enzyme Complex)

Carbohydrate Blend

The depletion of carbohydrate stores during exercise can be disastrous. Research has shown that when carbohydrate stores are diminished an extreme loss of muscle power and poor performance is the result. While carbohydrates are the primary source of fuel for intense exercise, past studies have shown that there is a limit to the amount of carbohydrates that your body can absorb and utilize per hour. It is believed that the absorption of a single carbohydrate source is limited because there is a limitation in the rate of intestinal absorption of that carbohydrate. It is suggested that by feeding a single carbohydrate source, the specific transporter proteins that aid in absorbing that carbohydrate from the intestine become saturated. Once these transporters are saturated, feeding more of that carbohydrate will not result in greater intestinal absorption.

However, new break-through research studies have found that by consuming a mixture of carbohydrate sources you can actually increases the number of carbohydrates your body can absorb per hour. It is believed that this occurs due to the fact that multiple carbohydrate sources stimulate multiple transport mechanisms to transfer carbohydrate from the intestine into the blood and thereby increase carbohydrate delivery to muscles.

Glyco-Peak was formulated based on this science and provides your body with an immediate, medium and long term energy supply as different sources of carbohydrates each have unique release rates in which your body uses them during intense exercise. The more carbohydrates available during intense exercise the better your performance can be.

New Low DE Maltodextrins

Low DE (Dextrose Equivalent) maltodextrins have what is perhaps the most unique and intriguing qualities for post workout carbohydrates as they are complex and can deliver more carbohydrates while keeping a low osmolality. Osmolality plays a large role in the speed at which the carbohydrate source is absorbed.

While simple sugar mixtures can have a low osmolality, research shows that no matter how much you consume, approximately only 20g of simple sugars can absorb in an hour making them extremely inadequate for post workout.

Low DE maltodextrins pack a much more powerful punch as they have been shown to be able to absorb up to 3 times more grams of carbohydrates and at the same speed of simple sugars. This increased amount being absorbed is super critical. Studies on low DE complex carbohydrates have shown show that they store more glycogen in athletes than other sources of carbohydrates such as rice and pasta.

Carbogen™, Cinnulin PF® and Chromium

Carbogen™ is a patented, proprietary enzyme system which has been clinically shown to enhance the conversion of carbohydrates into usable energy by the body. Studies show improvements in blood glucose (23% increase), time to exhaustion (43% increase) and blood acid levels (275% decrease) just 30 minutes into an intense workout. Cinnulin PF® and Chromium have also been shown to support glucose transport mechanisms by enhancing the insulin signaling pathways and activating insulin receptors leading to enhanced glucose uptake in muscle cells.

Ingredient Blend # 2: - AMINO SPEED M10™:

Anti-Catabolic Muscle Recovery and Endurance Enhancing Amino Acid Complex [containing LGlutamine, BCAAs ((Branched Chain Amino Acids (Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine)]. Recent clinical research has also shown that a carbohydrate-protein drink will help increase performance but a carbohydrate-amino acid drink will take it to the next level. Glyco-Peak’s amino blend consists of the most critical muscle dependant amino acids (Glutamine and BCAAs (Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine) needed during exercise.

Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in the body, makes up more than 60% of all amino acids found in muscle tissue while BCAAs (Branched Chain Amino Acids) make up approximately 35%. During exercise, protein degradation (muscle loss) actually occurs. Studies show that when these amino acids are ingested before, during and after exercise, the net rate of protein degradation decreases. Equally important, amino acid administration given before and during exhaustive exercise may also delay muscle glycogen depletion and improve performance.

Clinical studies show that when adequate amounts of these aminos are ingested, they can delay mental and physical fatigue, increase endurance, decrease muscle breakdown , speed repair and recovery, enhance glycogen replenishment and increase nitrogen retention further promoting lean muscle mass.

Ingredient Blend # 3: - KREB ENERGY™

Kreb Cycle Intermediate Mitochondrial Power Complex (containing Alpha-ketoglutaric Acid, Malic Acid, Fumaric Acid, Succinic Acid, Citric Acid, Pyruvic Acid and Pantothenic Acid)

Kreb Cycle Intermediates

In simple terms, the Krebs’ cycle is a system in your body that runs through a complex series of biological steps to generate molecules of ATP for muscle power output. When the Kreb cycle is inhibited, suboptimal aerobic ATP production occurs and can lead to debilitating fatigue and extreme loss of muscle power.

Supplementing these essential Krebs’ cycle acids can help prevent and remove the harmful byproducts that are generated from exercise and can stimulate a high yield of ATP from the mitochondria for muscle power output. They can provide an ergogenic edge in athletic performance by generating muscle power, increasing aerobic capacity and preventing fatigue.

Alpha-ketoglutaric Acid (AKG)

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid plays a vital role in the Krebs’ cycle production of power. As a precursor of the amino acid, glutamic acid, AKG stabilizes blood glucose levels during exercise. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid benefits the athlete by supporting protein synthesis, allowing for longer, more intense workouts, and by promoting healthy nitrogen balance.

Studies of patients given supplemental alpha-keto-glutarate following surgery found a nitrogen-sparing effect and a reduction in loss of lean body mass. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid helps reduce ammonium levels that may interfere with exercise performance. Studies have demonstrated that ammonia formed in the muscle, kidney and brain combines with alpha-ketoglutarate and L-glutamate to reduce ammonia toxicity.

Malic Acid

Malic acid acts as a catalyst in the Krebs’ cycle to increase power production. Malic acid also aids in exercise recovery by counteracting the buildup of hydrogen ions (H+). Supplementation of malic acid has been reported to be beneficial by reducing symptoms of persistent fatigue and muscular myalgia.

Fumaric Acid

Fumaric acid is the trans-isomer of malic acid that enters the cycle. It’s a byproduct at certain stages in the arginine-urea cycle and purine biosynthesis.

Succinic Acid

Succinic acid combines with protein to rebuild muscle fiber and nerve endings. Several amino acids are metabolized into succinic acid, providing a source of anaerobic and aerobic power. Amino acids that are metabolized into succinic acid have been shown to be important in supplying the heart with fuel for myocardium contractions under low oxygen conditions.

Citric Acid

Citric acid occupies a pivotal location in the Krebs’ cycle. After proteins, fats, carbohydrates and amino acids have been oxidized into acetyl coenzyme A, the acetic acid subunit of acetyl CoA is combined with oxaloacetate to form a molecule of citrate. The acetyl coenzyme A acts as a transporter of acetic acid from one enzyme to another.

Pyruvic Acid

Research has shown that taking pyruvate can increase muscle endurance and promote fat loss. Pyruvic acid also appears to increase the amount of glucose that enters muscle cells from the circulating blood. This ability of pyruvic acid leads to increases in immediate available power, as well as increasing stored muscle glycogen levels for future power. Research has shown that pyruvic acid increases muscle endurance and improves cardiac efficiency. In one study pyruvic acid was found to increase glucose extraction by almost 300% and muscle glycogen by 50% after one hour of exercise. The researchers found that arm endurance increased by 150% and leg endurance by 60%.

Pantothenic Acid

Supplementation of panthenine has been shown to produce an anti-arrhythmic effect in animal hearts by increasing ATP synthesis. A study of elite distance runners who were given pantothenic acid daily for two weeks found a 17% reduction in hydrogen ions (H+) buildup and a seven percent reduction in oxygen consumption during prolonged, strenuous exercise.

Ingredient Blend # 4: - Electrolyte VO2-pH™:

Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid Balance and Acid Buffering Complex [containing Potassium (as Chloride, Citrate and Phosphate), Magnesium (as Oxide, Citrate and Phosphate), Sodium (as Chloride, Phosphate and Citrate)] Electrolyte bound citrates and phosphates have been shown to improve athletic endurance and power in several ways. They are known to act as a buffer during exercise by reducing hydrogen ion (H+) buildup and intracellular acidosis to delay muscle fatigue. They have also been shown to speed the release of oxygen from hemoglobin to muscles and help to reform ATP and increase power. They have been shown to increase cardiac muscle contractility-response to exercise and stimulates glycolysis and power metabolism.

They are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body and critical for athletes as they are involved in muscle contraction, normal heart rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, antioxidant activity, acid base balance of the blood etc. Because many of these processes are accelerated during exercise, an adequate amount of minerals are necessary for optimal functioning.

Athletes should obtain an adequate amount of all minerals, for deficiency may adversely affect performance. Numerous studies spanning decades have demonstrated the benefits of these blood buffer supplements on improving athletic performance. Recent researcher at the University of Memphis found that phosphates lead to a 10% increase in VO2max, a 10% increase in maximal oxygen uptake and a 9% increase in power output at anaerobic threshold.

BUY NOW! PHOSPHO-PEAK™

BUY NOW! GLYCO-PEAK™

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